Danish Signaling, Distant Signals

Updated 990403

Contents

 Introduction
 Distant Signal Types
 Distant Signal Aspects and Indications
      "Caution" (Danish: "Kør forsigtigt")
      "Main Signal shows Proceed or Proceed Through" (Danish: "Hovedsignalet viser Kør eller Kør Igennem")
      "Main Signal shows Proceed Through" (Danish: "Hovedsignalet viser Kør Igennem")
 Distant Signal Usage
      Location of Distant Signals
      Advance Signaling an Entry Signal at....
 Peculiarities
      "Blind" Distant Signals
 
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Introduction

A signal type found on many lines is the Distant Signal (Danish: Fremskudt Signal). A Distant Signal informs a train of the indication of the following Main Signal but does not convey any information on the state of the line between the Distant Signal and the next Main Signal. Distant Signals are only used in approach to station Entry Signals, to Automatic Block Signals and to Protecting Signals.

Distant Signal Types

Danish Distant Signals are basically of 2 types, the 2-lamp type or the 3-lamp type. A 4-lamp variation of the 3-lamp type is used in advance to station Entry Signals with diverging Through Route. The 4-lamp signal shown is for a Through Route diverging to the right.

On lines permitting speeds up to max. 100 km/h (app. 60 mph), distant signals are placed 400 m (440 yds) before the Main Signal. Distant Signals so located are always the 2-lamp type.

On lines permitting 120 km/h (75 mph) the advance signaling distance is increased to 800 m (880 yds). Distant Signals on approach to Automatic Block Signals, Protection Signals and station Entry Signals on stations without a Through Route are the 2-lamp type. On approach to station Entry Signals on stations with a Through Route, the 3-lamp type is used, the 4-lamp type if the station has diverging Through Routes.

Lights displayed from a Distant Signal always flash.

Only two semaphore Distant Signals are still in service, on the approaches to Borris station:

Semaphore Distant Signals were always located 400 m (440 yds) before the Main Signal.

Distant Signal Aspects and Indications

"Caution" (Danish: "Kør forsigtigt")

 
  • Approach next Main Signal prepared to stop
X X X X
  • If the following Main Signal is a station Entry Signal, the Entry Signal may display a Proceed aspect for a route permitting only reduced speed (below 75 km/h - 45 mph), typically 40 or 60 km/h.
X      
  • The following Entry Signal may display a Proceed aspect for a route permitting only reduced speed (below 75 km/h - 45 mph), typically 40 or 60 km/h.
   X X X

"Main Signal shows Proceed or Proceed Through" (Danish: "Hovedsignalet viser Kør eller Kør Igennem")

 
  • The following Main Signal shows "Proceed" or better
X X X X
  • If the following Main Signal is a station Entry Signal, the Entry Signal shows "Proceed" or "Proceed Through", the former with a permissible speed of at least 75 km/h, the latter at whatever speed is permitted in the Through Route
X     X
  • The following Entry Signal will show "Proceed" with a permitted speed of at least 75 km/h 
  X X  

"Main Signal shows Proceed Through" (Danish: "Hovedsignalet viser Kør Igennem")

 
  • The following station Entry Signal shows "Proceed Through"
X X X
  • Entry route is diverging in the direction of the upper lamp
    X

Distant Signal Usage

Location of Distant Signals

The first Distant Signals were not located in a fixed distance from  their Main Signal. From 1922  the distance was standardized to 400 m and the Distant Signal became a requirement of line speed was above 70 km/h (45 mph). The maximum speed at main lines at the time was 100 km/h, and thus the 400 m  plus the sighting distance of the signal was just sufficient:

In 1935 when the first trains running at 120 km/h were introduced, the advance signaling distance had to be increased. That year was introduced a 3-aspect color light Distant Signal on approach to Entry Signals. This new Distant Signal was located 800 m in advance of the Entry Signal:

3-aspect Distant Signals have always been located at least 800 m in advance of the Entry Signal.
Today the advance signaling distance on lines with speeds of 100 km/h or less is still 400 m:

On lines where line speed is 75 km/h or less the Distant Signal may be omitted, provided that there is a 400 m sighting distance of the Entry Signal. Semaphore Distant Signals have always been located 400 m on the approach to an Entry Signal, or they have been replaced by color light signals.

Distant Signals on approach to stations with diverging through routes are located following the same rules as the 3-aspect Distant Signal, i.e. 800 m in advance of the Entry Signal:

Only on a few lines featuring Distant Signals (and not advance signaling Automatic Block Signals) has the  the speed been raised from 120 km/h to 140 km/h. On these lines the Distant Signals are located 1200 m in advance of the Entry Signals:

Finally there are some instances of Distant Signals on approach to Automatic Block Signals or Protection Signals. Though these Distant Signals are the 2-aspect type (since the Automatic Block Signal cannot display "Proceed Through"), they are located in the same distance as a 3-aspect Distant Signal would be:

Advance Signaling an Entry Signal at....

"Stop":

"Proceed (at reduced speed)":

"Proceed (at high speed)":

"Proceed Through":

Peculiarities

"Blind" Distant Signals

On the approach to Entry Signals not capable of showing "Proceed" at high speed or "Proceed through", the distant signal always shows "Caution". These signals only need the yellow lamp but may be of the 2- or 3-lamp style depending on the context they are used in:

Please note that "blind" Distant Signals are more common than "blind" Entry Signals, since stations with only reduced entry speed feature "blind" Distant Signals whereas the Entry Signal is a normal signal.

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